An electrical substation is a collection of electrical parts that include power transformers, busbars, switchgear etc. These parts are connected in such a way that a circuit can be powered off at the time of normal operation by using manual command. Its design also allows switching off during irregular conditions such as a short circuit.
Simply put, an electrical substation is designed in such a way that an incoming and outgoing circuit is connected to a common busbar system. As such, the substation uses incoming transmission lines to acquire power from the generating station and then deliver electricity through the outgoing lines.
Conventionally, the main components of a substation are bought from multiple suppliers. The customer is the responsibility to bear the cost of connecting these parts together and potential damage risk at the time of assembly. It is here that a Metalclad distribution Substation steps in.
The Metalclad Distribution Substation removes the associated cost and risk as it is assembled before it is delivered to the site. An end-to-end solution includes the following:
- A distribution transformer
- Ringmaster range switchgear
- Dielectric fluids
- Transformer – hermetically sealed or free breathing variant
- Circuit breaker or switch disconnector
- Stainless steel enclosure which is powder-coated and available in multiple colours.
- Easy installation with complete access to all the components
Function of a metalclad distribution substation
A metalclad distribution substation is a type of metal-enclosed switchgear where all the important components in each bay are physically separated from one another by using the earthed metalwork. As a result, it prevents any fault erupting in any one compartment from spreading to other compartments.
It is very important that the busbars remain unaffected by a malfunctioning in one circuit panel so that adjacent panels can continue to operate until appropriate repairs have been carried out. The main segregation happens between cable box and instrument transformers, circuit breaker and busbars, and instrument transformer chamber and circuit breaker.
These arrangements have been designed to allow high availability as well as reliable systems than the ones achieved from metal-enclosed substations.
Since most of the switchboards were primarily designed for outdoor use, they have traditionally been of the metal-clad type. However, in places of inclement weather conditions, these switchboards may suffer the vagaries of nature and attract high maintenance costs. Therefore, they have now been designed specifically for weatherproof buildings.
These days, a new trend for them is to be placed in transportable containers, also known as mobile substations. This allows these systems to be transported to a more appropriate location if the local load patterns change.
Classification of Substation
Classification of the substation is based on the following:
- High voltage levels: These type of substations include AC Substation, such as EHV, MV, LV; and HVDC substation
- Outdoor and indoor: As the name suggests, outdoor substations are located outside the building, whereas the indoor ones are inside.
- Configuration: There are three types of substations that are based on configuration – conventional air-insulated outdoor substation, SF6 gas insulated substation, and composition substations that are a combination of these two.
- Primary grid substation: This type of substation is created along primary transmission lines at a suitable load center.
- Secondary substation: Thesesubstations are created along the secondary transmission line.
- Mining substation: It needs a special design because it requires additional precautions for safety needed in the electric supply operation.
- Bulk supply and industrial substation: While it is same as a distribution substation, this one is created separately for every customer.
- Distribution substation: This one’s created where the transmission line voltage is relegated to supply voltage.
- Step up substation: This is a type of generating station due to low generating voltage.
Discuss your requirements with a professional service provider to make the right selection of substation based on your needs and budget.